Verbs

Tense/Aspect Derivation Chart:

TYPE TENSE PLAIN CONT. GNOMIC PAUSITIVE CESSATIVE ITERATIVE INCEPTIVE DEFECTIVE

Active
PRES
PAST
FUTURE
-[i]hin
-[i]je/ -[i]nen
-[a]jar
-[i]hun
-[i]hen
-[a]har
-[õ]hõn
-[õ]jõ/ -[õ]nõn
-[i]pin
-[i]pen
-[i]ppin
-[i]ppen
-[õ]põn
-[õ]dõn
-[i]jjin
-[i]jjen
-[i]qin
-[i]qen

Stative
PRES
PAST
FUTURE
-[i]min
-[i]men
-[a]mjar
 -[i]mun

 

-[õ]mõn

 

See also:
Perfect Aspect
Protractive Aspect

Mood Suffix Chart:

TYPE MOOD GLOSS SUFFIX TRANSLATION
Epistemic Conditional COND -ge would/might

Deontic
Imperative
Hortative
Potential
IMP
HORT
POT
-de
-ce
-jo
command/question
should/ought to
can/able to

Other
Causative
Optative
Noncommittant
CAUS
OPT
NCOM
-re
-ju
-djjo
cause to
want to
think/maybe
Voice* Passive PASS -r subject is patient

*: The passive voice isn’t exactly a mood, per se, but it is grouped with them here for simplicity’s sake. See “Passive Voice” for more information (link pending).

In Duojjin, there is no such thing as a verb root. There are noun roots, there are adverb roots, there are pronoun roots, there are conjunction roots, and there are interjection roots, but there are no verb roots. That is to say, there are no single morphemes that can be called verbs (there are no adjective roots or adposition roots either, but that’s beside the point for now).

All Duojjin verbs are constructed through derivation. Suffixes are applied to nouns which encode type, tense, aspect, and mood. These suffixes can be applied to bare noun roots or case-modified noun stems. When applied to a case-modified noun stem, the noun case will make an implication about the verb. Information about these implications can be found in the respective pages for each noun case on this site. Locative cases in verbs always imply verbs of motion.

Tense, aspect, and type are encoded together into single morphemes. For example, the morpheme -ihin encodes present tense, plain aspect, and active type. There are two different types: active and stative. There are three different tenses: past, present, and future. And there are eight aspects: plain, continuous, gnomic, pausative, cessative, simil-iterative, inceptive, and defective. These tense-and-aspect-encoding suffixes can be called tense suffixes or aspect suffixes just as rightly, but on this site, I will refer to them as aspect suffixes.

These aspect suffixes are written in brown/maroon and peach in the interlinear glosses on this site. In cases where there are more than two aspect suffixes, the colour of any of them beyond the second will be improvised. The root words onto which these suffixes attach are coloured teal and dark azure in glosses on this site.

Aspect suffixes are bound morphemes which must attach to a root or another aspect suffix, and they cannot be used on their own. They are not words.

There are also two further aspects which are created by combining aspect suffixes in various ways: the perfect and the protractive. Click the links for information about those.

There are seven grammatical/morphological moods: conditional, imperative, hortative, potential, causative, optative, and noncommittant. More information on those below and on their own individual pages.

The simil-iterative aspect is glossed as “iterative” for the sake of simplicity, but it should be noted that it is, in truth, a simil-iterative. A semantically true iterative, however, can be formed by using the simil-iterative in the protractive. What this means in layman’s terms is that the iterative suffix -opõn means do again/one more time, while the protractive form -opõnõpõn means do over and over again.

-[i]jen / -[õ]jõn vs. -[i]nen / -[õ]nõn


The active past plain and the active past gnomic use the allomorphs -ijen and -õjõn respectively when they are being attached to a morpheme or segment which ends in a vowel, and they use the allomorphs -inen and õnõn respectively when they are being attached to a morpheme or segment which ends in a consonant, or a vowel that is preceded by a diphthong or /j/.

gatsåen
gatsaijen
morpheme ends in a vowel

tälälnen
täläapalinen
morpheme ends in a consonant

rakåanen
rakåainen
morpheme ends in a vowel preceded by a diphthong

jäänen
jääinen
morpheme ends in a vowel preced by /j/

Active Derivations

“Active” type suffixes derive verbs that are actions. These suffixes are glossed as “do” in translations for simplicity’s sake, but they are not verb morphemes in and of themselves, in the same way that the suffix -ify is not a verb in and of itself in English despite itself deriving a verb. So this practice of glossing ACTIVE as do may be misleading. The entire derived stem is a verb construct, but the suffixes deriving them are not verbs.

Active derivations essentially create a stem that turns a noun into a verb in much the same way that suffixes like -ize, -ate, or -ify turn various kinds of words into verbs in English (examples: polarize, reverberaterevivify).

purůhin
puruihin
worddo.PRES.PLN
[talk / say]
(Lit: wording)
purůhin

lamnihun
lamniihun
lifedo.PRES.CONT
still living
(Lit: lifeingstill)
lamnihun

gatsappin
gatsaippin
eyedo.PRES.CESS
stop seeing / stop looking
(Lit: eyestopping)
gatsappin

purůjen
puruijen
worddo.PAST.PLN
[said / spoke]
(lit: worded)
purůjen

lamnihen
lamniihen
lifedo.PAST.CONT
was still living
(Lit: lifewasstilldoing)
lamnihen

gatsappen
gatsaippen
eyedo.PAST.CESS
stopped seeing / stopped looking
(Lit: eyestopped)
gatsappen

purujar
purujar
worddo.FUT.PLN
will [say]
(Lit: wordwill)
purujar

lamnihar
lamniahar
lifedo.FUT.CONT
will still [live] / will continue to [live]
(Lit: lifewillstilldo)
lamnihar

gatsappinjar
gatsaippinjar
eyedo.PRES.CESSdo.FUT.PLN
will stop seeing / will stop looking
(Lit: eyestopwill)
gatsappinjar

Stative Derivations

“Stative” type suffixes derive verbs that are existential or copulaic. These suffixes are glossed as “is” in translations for simplicity’s sake, but, like the active suffixes described above, they are not actually verbs themselves.

Stative derivations essentially just mean “is/am/are ROOT”.

mirimin
mirim
miriimin
catis.PRES.PLN
is a cat
(Lit: catis)
mirimin
mirim

køramen
køraimen
maleis.PAST.PLN
was a man
(Lit: maleis)
køramen

huomjar
huoamjar
houseis.FUT.PLN
will be a house
(Lit: housewillbe)
huomjar

pøgomun
pøgoimun
foolis.PRES.CONT
is still a fool / is still being a fool
(Lit: foolstillis)
pøgomun

tälämõn
täläõmõn
hereis.PRES.GNOM
is always here
(Lit: herealwaysis)
tälämõn

Informal Contraction

Tense/Aspect and mood suffixes used in verb derivations are subject to certain elision/contraction tendencies. That is to say, certain sounds may get dropped in certain conditions. These elisions are reflected orthographically (in writing).

When an aspect suffix is followed by another aspect suffix, the final consonant of the first aspect suffix (represented in green text in the chart above) is optionally elided at the speaker’s discretion unless the initial realized phoneme of the following suffix is /j/. In which case, the final consonant of the initial aspect suffix may not be dropped. Or if the second affix is -õdõn (the active, past, iterative suffix), then the final consonant of the initial aspect suffix may not be dropped. In situations where there are multiple aspect suffixes and also at least one mood suffix, then all of the aspect suffixes are subjecet to these elisions. As with optional elisions in noun cases, applying these elisions is informal. When speaking in a formal situation, one should always use the full forms of everything.

In the Tense/Aspect chart above, the letters written in blue font may be optionally elided at the speaker’s discretion supposing that an illegal phonetic cluster or stress pattern would not arise from doing so. These letters in blue font are mostly in pairs of two letters within the same affix. When there are two, you cannot elide just one of the blue letters; if you elide either of them, you must elide both. These contractions are informal and reflected in orthography.

The blue ⟨e⟩ of the stative past plain -imen can only be elided if it is not the last morpheme/affix in a word. And even then, it can only be elided if doing so would not create an illegal phonological sequence such as an illegal consonant cluster. For example, in the optative -imnju would be illegal because it has three consecutive consonant phonemes.

In the Tense/Aspect chart above, the letters written in green font may be optionally elided at the speaker’s discretion when another affix of any sort is being applied after it. However, if the green letter is an ⟨n⟩ and the first realized phoneme of the following affix being applied to the end of it is /j/, then the green ⟨n⟩ cannot be elided. Or if the following affix being applied to it is -õdõn, then the green ⟨n⟩ cannot be elided. These contractions are informal and reflected in orthography, although they are less informal than other contractions. As long as the situation is not extremely formal, then you can safely contract these. In fact, it might sound somewhat stuffy not to.

If letters in green are to be elided, the letters in blue must remain, and vice versa.

In the Tense/Aspect chart above, the purple ⟨n⟩ in the -imin suffix counts as both blue and green as described in the preceding paragraphs.

In the Mood chart above, the letters written in orange font may be optionally elided at the speaker’s discretion as long as they are the final affix in a word. These contractions are informal and reflected in the orthography. Contracting these forms while speaking with a stranger or social superior may be seen as rude or disrespectful. Contracting aspect suffixes is not overly informal, but the contraction of mood suffixes is, and contracting noun case suffixes is even more so.

The presence of any of these mood suffixes which contain an orange vowel, when contracted, will force the elision of the green consonant of the final aspect suffix before the first mood suffix. When the mood suffix is not contracted, the contraction of the final aspect suffix by the elision of green consonants remains optional.

In the interlinear gloss translations provided on this site, there will sometimes be two different versions of the Duojjin text provided. In these cases, the first one is formal and non-contracted, while the second is informal and contracted.

Sandhi

Aside from the optional elisions, all of the aspect suffixes are subject to sandhi. The rules for this are the same as the rules for sandhi anywhere else in the language. The characters subject to sandhi in these suffixes are written inside of [square brackets] in the charts, just like the noun case charts. However, also like the noun case sandhi, these square brackets are not present in glosses. See the Noun Case page for more information on sandhi (and, eventually, a dedicated sandhi page).

Mood

Mood suffixes attach after the aspect suffixes. Generally, you won’t tend to find any more than two mood suffixes applied in any given verb construction, but sometimes, you can find as many as four.

In linguistics, mood expresses certain things about how the speaker perceives or feels about the statement. From Wikipedia: “In linguisticsgrammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality. That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying (e.g. a statement of fact, of desire, of command, etc.).”

Mood suffixes are coloured in glosses on this site in bright pink and soft pink. When there are more than two mood suffixes in the same gloss, any suffixes beyond the second will have their colour improvised.

Mood suffixes are bound morphemes which must attach to an aspect suffix or another mood suffix, and they cannot be used on their own. They are not words.

purůhinge
puruhig
puruihinge
worddo.PRES.PLNCOND
would [talk/say] / would be talking/saying
(Lit: wordingwould)
puruhinge
purůhig

puruhinde
puruhid
puruihinde
worddo.PRES.PLNIMP
[[speak!]] / talking/saying?
(Lit: wording(command/query))
puruhinde
puruhid

puruhince
puruhic
puruihince
worddo.PRES.PLNHORT
should [talk/say]
(Lit: wordingshould)
puruhince
puruhic

puruhinjo
puruihinjo
worddo.PRES.PLNPOT
can [talk/say/speak]
(Lit: wordingcan)
puruhinjo

puruhinte
puruhit
puruihinte
worddo.PRES.PLNCAUS
cause to [talk]
(Lit: wordingcause)
puruhinte
puruhit

puruhinju
puruihinju
worddo.PRES.PLNOPT
want to [speak/say]
(Lit: wordingwant)
puruhinju

puruhindjjo
puruhidjj
purudo.PRES.PLNNCOM
saying, I think
(Lit: wordingmaybe)
puruhindjjo
puruhidjj

As with any other class of affixes, each sequential mood affix modifies the affix before it. For example, compare OPT+CAUS (caused to want) vs CAUS+OPT (want to cause):

Apyõrin seilamnippinjute.
Apyõrin seilamnippinjut.
apyõrin seilamniippinjute
DEMmouseACC 1NOMlifedo.PRES.CESSOPTCAUS
[I] am caused to want [that mouse] to stop living.
[I] [need] [that mouse] to [die].
(Lit: [thatmouse] Ilifestopdoingwantcause)
Apyõrin sei’lamnippinjute.
Apyõrin sei’lamnippinjut.

Apyõrin seilamnippinteju.
Apyõrin seilamnippitju.
apyõrin seilamniippinteju
DEMmouseACC 1NOMlifedo.PRES.CESSCAUSOPT
[I] want to cause [that mouse] to stop living.
[I] want to [[kill]] [that mouse].
(Lit: [thatmouse] Ilifestopdoingcausewant)
Apyõrin sei’lamnippinteju
Apyõrin sei’lamnippitju.

More about this in the Moods section.

Negation

Verbs are negated by echoing the vowel of the final aspect suffix in a word. This means that the negative of -ihin is -ihini, and the negative of -ijen/-inen is -ijene/-inene, and the negative of -ajar is -ajara. The echoed vowel is placed at the end of the aspect suffix when there are no mood or voice suffixes applied or when the mood suffix following the aspect suffix ends in ⟨o⟩ or ⟨u⟩. But when the aspect suffix is in the present tense and the proceeding mood suffix ends in ⟨e⟩, then the negating echo vowel is infixed after the consonant of the mood suffix and before its vowel. This is true regardless of whether or not the mood’s vowel is actually realized. However, if a voice suffix is applied to the end of the verb construct, then the echo vowel comes after it.

Negating echo vowels always receive main stress.

Negating echo vowels are glossed in black in the interlinear translations on this site.

purůhini
puruihin–i
worddo.PRES.PLN–NEG
not talking / not saying
(Lit: wordingnot)
purůhini

purůhinijo
puruihin–i–jo
worddo.PRES.PLN–NEG–POT
cannot [talk] / cannot [say]
(Lit: wordingnotcan)
purůhinijo

purůhindie
purůhidi
puruihin–i–de
worddo.PRES.PLN–NEG–IMP
do not [talk] / do not [say]
is not talking? / is not saying?
(Lit: wordingnot(command/query))
purůhini
purůhidi

lamnihunu
lamniihun–u
lifedo.PRES.CONT–NEG
not still living
(Lit: lifestilldoingnot)
lamnihunu

lamnihunujo
lamniihun–u–jo
lifedo.PRES.CONT–NEG–POT
cannot continue living
(Lit: lifestilldoingnotcan)
lamnihunujo

lamnihundue?
lamnihudu?
lamniihun–u–de
lifedo.PRES.CONT–NEG–IMP
is not still living?
(Lit: lifestilldoingnot(query))
lamnihunde?
lamnihudu?

gatsappini
gatsaippin–i
eyedo.PRES.CESS–NEG
not stop seeing / not stop looking
(Lit: eyestoppingnot)
gatsappini

gatsappinijo
gatsaippin–i–jo
eyedo.PRES.CESS–NEG–POT
cannot stop seeing / cannot stop looking
(Lit: eyestoppingnotcan)
gatsappinijo

gatsappindie(?)
gatsappidi(?)
gatsaippin–i–de
eyedo.PRES.CESS–NEG–IMP
do not stop seeing / do not stop looking / won’t stop looking?
(Lit: eyestoppingnot(command/query))
gatsappindie(?)
gatsappidi(?)

purůjene
puruijen–e
worddo.PAST.PLN–NEG
did not [say] / did not [speak]
(lit: wordednot)
purůjene

purůjenejo
puruijen–e–jo
worddo.PAST.PLN–NEG–POT
[could] not [say] / [could] not [speak]
(lit: wordednotcan)
purůjenejo

purůjenede?
purůjened?
puruijen–e–de
worddo.PAST.PLN–NEG–IMP
did not say? / did not speak?
(lit: wordednot(command/query)*)
purůjenede?
purůjened?
*: The imperative mood can only be interpreted as
a query when used with a paste tense aspect suffix.

lamnihene
lamniihen–e
lifedo.PAST.CONT–NEG
was not still living
(Lit: lifewasstilldoingnot)
lamnihene

lamnihenejo
lamniihen–e–jo
lifedo.PAST.CONT–NEG–POT
[could] not continue living
(Lit: lifewasstilldoingnotcan)
lamnihenejo

lamnihenede?
lamnihened?
lamniihen–e–de
lifedo.PAST.CONT–NEG–IMP
did not continue living?
was not still living?
(Lit: lifewasstilldoingnot(command/query)*)
lamnihenede(?)
lamnihened(?)
*: The imperative mood can only be interpreted as
a query when used with a paste tense aspect suffix.

gatsappene
gatsaippen–e
eyedo.PAST.CESS–NEG
did not stop seeing / did not stop looking
(Lit: eyestoppednot)
gatsappene

gatsappenejo
gatsaippen–e–jo
eyedo.PAST.CESS–NEG–POT
[could] not stop seeing / [could] not stop looking
(Lit: eyestoppednotcan)
gatsappenejo

gatsappenede?
gatsappened?
gatsaippen–e–de
eyedo.PAST.CESS–NEG–IMP
did not stop seeing? / did not stop looking?
(Lit: eyestoppednot(command/query)*)
gatsappenede(?)
gatsappened(?)
*: The imperative mood can only be interpreted as
a query when used with a paste tense aspect suffix.

purujara
purujar–a
worddo.FUT.PLN–NEG
will not say
(Lit: wordwillnot)
purujara

purujaråo
purujar–a–jo
worddo.FUT.PLN–NEG–POT
will not be able to say
(Lit: wordwillnotcan)
purujaråo

purujarade(?)
purujarad(?)
purujar–a–de
worddo.FUT.PLN–NEG–IMP
will not say/talk(?)
(Lit: wordwillnot(command/query))
purujarade?
purujarad?

lamnihara
lamniahar–a
lifedo.FUT.CONT–NEG
will not continue to live
(Lit: lifewillstilldonot)
lamnihara

lamniharåo
lamniahar–a–jo
lifedo.FUT.CONT–NEG–POT
will not be able to continue to live
(Lit: lifewillstilldonotcan)
lamniharåo

lamniharade(?)
lamniharad(?)
lamniahar–a–de
lifedo.FUT.CONT–NEG–IMP
will not continue to live(?) / do not continue to live
(Lit: lifewillstillnot(command/query))
lamniharade?
lamniharad?

gatsappinjara
gatsaippinjar–a
eyedo.PRES.CESSdo.FUT.PLN–NEG
will not stop seeing / will not stop looking
(Lit: eyestopwillnot)
gatsappinjara

gatsappinjarajo
gatsaippinjar–a–jo
eyedo.PRES.CESSdo.FUT.PLN–NEG–POT
will not be able to stop seeing / will not be able to stop looking
(Lit: eyestopwillnotcan)
gatsappinjarajo

gatsappinjarade(?)
gatsappinjarad(?)
gatsaippinjar–a–de
eyedo.PRES.CESSdo.FUT.PLN–NEG–IMP
will not stop seeing(?) / will not stop looking(?)
(Lit: eyestopwillnot(?))
gatsappinjarade(?)
gatsappinjarad(?)

Page Published on January 20, 2018
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