Perlative Case (PER)

-[e]lti

The perlative case expresses motion through the root; in one side and out the other.

huolti
huoelti
housePER
through the house
(Lit: housethrough)
huolti

vonolti
vonoelti
windowPER
through the window
(Lit: windowthrough)
vonolti

vøolti
vøo–elti
wallPER
through the wall
(Lit: wallthrough)
vøolti

sjeivaelti
sjeivaelti
skyPER
through the sky
(Lit: skythrough)
sjeivaelti

Verbal Derivation Implication

When a perlative noun is derived into an action verb, it denotes a movement which begins outside of the root on one side, and which ends outside of the root on another side (typically its opposite side). This can usually be conceptually translated into English as go through. The manner of this motion is either contextual (and therefore left unmentioned), or else elaborated through additional words or phrases.

If the thing doing the motion is wider, or taller, or heavier than the thing being moved through, then the perlative verb may take on the contextual connotation of severing something in two, or otherwise dismembering something.

Tilukiriltinen mošaško.
tilukirieltiinen mošaeško
birdNOMtreePERdo.PST.PLN holePROL
The bird [went] through the tree by way of the hole.
The bird [[went]] through the hole [in] the tree.
(Lit: Birdtreethroughed holebywayof)
Tilu’kiriltinen mošaško.

Šinøseltinen.
šinøseieltiinen
arrowNOM1PERdo.PST.PLN
The arrow [went] through me.
The arrow [pierced] me (and it came out the other side).
(Lit: Arrowmethroughed)
Šinø’seltinen.

Nätästuttaeltijar.
nätästuttaeltiajar
knifeNOMplantPERdo.FUT.PLN
The knife will [go] through the plant.
The knife will [cut] the plant [in half].
(Lit: Knifeplantthroughwill)
Nätä’stuttaeltijar.

Heivøoltinen.
heivøoeltiinen
3NOMwallPERdo.PST.PLN
She [went] through the wall.
(Lit: Shewallthroughed)
Hei’vøoltinen.

It is important to note that this case has the very specific connotation that the motion both begins and ends outside of the root. It might be better to think of this case as meaning something closer to penetrate all the way through, which means that you cannot use this case to say something like “tilusjeivaeltihõn” (birds fly through the sky). If you tried to say “tilu’sjeivaeltihõn”, it would be like saying “birds fly straight up into the sky until they penetrate the Firmament”… if you believe in the concept of the Firmament in the first place. You could probably find some circumstantial reasons to say this (examples below), but the point is that saying that something “goes through the sky” (or something else of the like) does not elicit the same mental image in Duojjin that it does in English. You also could not use this case to say something like “jurijuttaeltihõn” (fish swim through the water). You know how fish jump out of the water for brief moments before splashing back into it? Well, imagine if that were all backwards, and a flying fish jumped into water for a brief moment before splashing back out of it… except the water it’s jumping into is shaped like a window pane, so it’s actually jumping *through* the water… If you can wrap your head around that mental image, then you might have an idea as to why the perlative case is not to be used this way, because this is the image which would be elicited by this kind of use. One would want to use the inessive case for this (Tilusjeivavalõhõn/Jurijuttavalõhõn).

Supermänsjeivaeltinen.
supermänsjeivaeltiinen
SupermanNOMskyPERdo.PST.PLN
Superman [[[flew]]] through the sky (and into outer space).
(Lit: Supermanskythroughed)
Supermän’sjeivaeltinen.

Qjosjeivaeltijar.
qjosjeivaeltiajar
shipNOMskyPERdo.FUT.PLN
The ship will [go] through the sky (and emerge in outer space).
(Lit: Shipskythroughwill)
Hju’sjeivaeltijar.

When a perlative noun is derived into a stative verb, it becomes copulaic, and means is on the other side of the rootwith the possible added connotation that it was previously on this side of the root.

Seissavuoråaltimin.
seiessavuoråaeltiimin
1PLNOMmountainPERis.PRS.PLN
We are now through the mountain.
(Lit: Wemountainthroughare)
Seissa’vuoråaltimin.

Heitõtõltimin.
heitõtõeltiimin
3NOMstreetPERis.PRS.PLN
He
is across the street.

(Lit: Hestreetthroughis)
He’tõtõltimin.

Heivøoltimin.
heivøoeltiimin
3NOMwallPERis.PRS.PLN
She is on the other side of the wall.
(LIT: Shewallthroughis)
Hei’vøoltimin.

Seissakikiriltimar cikjåõra.
seiessakikirieltiamar cikjåøra
1PLNOMforestPERis.FUT.PLN smalltimeTEMP
We will be through the forest [[soon]].
(Lit: Weforestthroughwillbe smalltimewhen)
Seissa’kikiriltimar cikjåõra.

Page Published on June 15, 2017

 

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