Noun Case

Preface Note: This page is a work in progress.

Preface Note: Every article (the words a (indefinite article) and the (definite article)) that appears in the translations on this page could just as well be its opposite (definites could be indefinite and indefinites could be definite). Only up to one article is used in each translation for simplicity’s sake and to help save room in the tables, but every occurrence of the words a and the in the translation columns of the tables on this page ought to say “a/the”. Duojjin does not actually have articles at all, so they are only used in these translations for simplicity’s sake and convenience’s sake.

Preface Note: I have recently overhauled Duojjin’s case suffix forms. As such, many of the case forms found on this page are currently on probation, so to speak, and are subject to possible change in the future. 

Noun case is one of the biggest and most important elements of the language. Every noun must always have at least one case ending attached to it. Cases in Duojjin always take the form of a suffix that gets attached to the end of a root. Any number of case endings can theoretically be applied to a noun, although anything more than two cases on the same noun would be extremely rare.

Nouns with case suffixes applied to them can still be verbed (turned into a verb) with the use of one or two derivational suffixes. Such verbs will have an underlying implication which varies depending on the case(s) used on the verbed noun. By clicking on a case name in any of the tables below, you will be able to find information about any implications which are made by that case when it is verbed (among other things).

Most noun cases will end in ⟨al⟩, ⟨at⟩, ⟨õl⟩, or ⟨õt⟩. However, several other noun cases will end in ⟨alla⟩, ⟨atta⟩, ⟨õllõ⟩, or ⟨õttõ⟩. The latter is always an exaggerated version of the former. For example, ⟨aval⟩ means inside, while ⟨avalla⟩ means deep inside.

Sandhi/Epenthesis

In the charts below, the columns which illustrate the written form of a case suffix and the columns which illustrate the pronunciation of a case suffix will both contain characters in [brackets] and/or {braces}. These are defining sandhi rules in as clear a manner as I think is possible. The phonemes so contained shall be referred to here as “epenthetic phonemes”.

In the IPA column in the tables below, epenthetic phonemes that are contained in [brackets] are never pronounced unless their exclusion would cause an illegal syllable structure or stress pattern. In which case, they are epenthetically inserted both phonetically and orthographically. When these epenthetic phonemes are not pronounced (which is most of the time), they are also not written orthographically, as reflected by the letters representing these phonemes being respectively contained in [brackets] in the Suffix column in the tables below.

In the IPA column in the tables below, epenthetic phonemes that are contained in {braces} are always pronounced unless their inclusion would cause an illegal syllable structure or stress pattern. In which case, they are elided. When these phonemes are not pronounced (which is seldom), they are also not written orthographically, as reflected by the letters representing these phonemes being respectively contained in {braces} in the Suffix column in the tables below. The only such suffix that still uses this {braced} format is the temporal case. There used to be others, but they’re all gone or changed now.

If an epenthetic phoneme contained in {braces} is itself contained within another {braced} phoneme, it means that the embedded phoneme is dependent on the presence of the outside phoneme. So in a structure like {X{Y}}, then X is always pronounced unless the presence of X would result in an illegal syllable structure or stress pattern, and Y is only pronounced if X is also pronounced and the presence of Y would not result in an illegal syllable structure or stress pattern.

The epenthetic phonemes of suffixes which begin with a bracketed ⟨e⟩ (like the abessive, for example) can be optionally included at the speaker’s discretion in environments where it would not otherwise be mandated, so long as the morpheme it is being attached to ends in an ⟨a⟩, and so long as its inclusion would not result in an illegal syllable structure or stress pattern.

Combinations of ⟨a⟩ + ⟨e⟩ that result at morpheme boundaries are never diphthongized (unlike combinations within single morphemes, which are always diphthongized), but rather split into two syllables.

The epenthetic phonemes of suffixes which begin with a bracketed ⟨õ⟩ (like the lative, for example) must be included when the morpheme it is being attached to ends in an ⟨i⟩ or a ⟨y⟩ , even in environments which would not otherwise mandate its inclusion, so long as its inclusion would not result in an illegal syllable structure or stress pattern.

Combinations of ⟨i⟩+⟨õ⟩ (unlike the combinations discussed above) are always diphthongized, whether they be at a morpheme boundary or within the boundaries of a single morpheme.

Core Grammatical Cases

Core cases are the cases which determine who is doing what to whom in a clause. These are some of the most important cases to know, and some of the most frequently used, but also perhaps some of the hardest for a beginner to wrap their heads around because they don’t really translate into English very well. But you can click on a case name for a detailed description.

Unlike all other case categories, the core cases cannot be verbed. That is to say that they cannot take derivational suffixes that would otherwise change the word into a verb. Well… maybe someone who’s really stubborn could argue that nominative words could be verbed (on account of it being unmarked), but I think I would maintain that such words simply don’t have any case marking at all, because they don’t need one on account of being verbs.

Case Gloss Suffix IPA Example 1 Example 2 Translation 1 Translation 2
Nominative NOM miri jutta cat water
Accusative ACC -n /n/ mirin juttan cat water
Middle MID -[e]mpa /[ɛ]m.pɐ/ mirimpa juttampa cat water
Passive PASS -[i]vi /[i]vi/ mirivi juttavi cat water

Non-Core Grammatical Cases

Grammatical cases are cases which don’t really have any semantic value, but instead fulfill a grammatical purpose. These purposes mostly consist of intention, singularization, possession, and topicalization. You can get a detailed description of those grammatical purposes by clicking on a case name in the chart below.

Case Gloss Suffix IPA Example 1 Example 2 Translation 1 Translation 2
Partitive PART -[e]jj /[ɛ]ʒ/ mirijj juttaejj any cat droplet
Dative DAT -[õ]hõl
-[õ]hø
/[ə]həl/
/[ə]həɪ̯/
miriõhõl
miriõhø
juttahõl
juttahø
for the cat
/ because of the cat
for the water
/ because of the water
Malefactive MAL -[õ]hõllõ /[ə]həlːə/ miriõhõllõ juttahõllõ against/opposed
to the cat
against/opposed
to the water
Adverbial ADV -jat /jat/ mirijat juttåat cattily like water
Contrastive CONTR -ja[e]tta /ja[ˈɛ]tːɐ/ mirijat juttajaetta as compared to the cat as compared to water
Genitive GEN -[i]pi /[i]pi/ miripi juttapi of cat
/ about cat / cat’s
of water
/ about water / water’s
Genitive 1 GEN1 -[i]si /[i]zi/ mirisi juttasi my cat my water
Genitive 2 GEN2 -[i]ti /[i]ti/ miriti juttati your cat your water
Genitive 3 Animate GEN3 -[i]gi /[i]gi/ mirigi juttagi his/her cat his/her water
Genitive 3 Inanimate GEN3.IN -[i]di /[i]di/ miridi juttadi its cat its water
Genitive 4 GEN4 -[i]ji /[i]ji/ miriji juttaji one’s cat one’s water
Genitive 1 Obviate GEN1.OBV -[i]sisi /[i]zi.zi/ mirisisi juttasisi my counterpart’s
cat
my counterpart’s
water
Genitive 2 Obviate GEN2.OBV -[i]titi /[i]ti.ti/ mirititi juttatiti your counterpart’s
cat
your counterpart’s
water
Genitive 3 Animate
Obviate
GEN3.OBV -[i]gigi /[i]ɡi.ɡi/ mirigigi juttagigi that other person’s
cat
that other person’s
water
Genitive 3 Inanimate
Obviate
GEN3.IN.OBV -[i]didi /[i]didi/ mirididi juttadidi the other one’s cat the other one’s water
Genitive 4 Obviate GEN4.OBV -[i]jiji /[i]jiji/ mirijiji juttajiji someone else’s
cat
someone else’s
water

Oblique Cases:

The cases classified as “oblique” in Duojjin are cases which have meanings which blur the line between semantic and grammatical content (or at least I think so), and which are not locative. They carry more of an “active” connotation than the other cases.

Case Gloss Suffix IPA Example 1 Example 2 Translation 1 Translation 2
Translative TRANSL -[õ]mõl
-[õ]mø
/[ə]məl/
/[ə]məɪ̯/
miriõmõl
miriõmø
juttamõl
juttamø
to being a cat to being water
Exessive EXE -[a]mal
-[a]må
/[ɐ]mal/
/[ɐ]maɪ̯/
mirimal
mirimå
juttamal
juttamå
from being a cat from being water
Essive ESV -[a]mat /[ɐ]mat/ mirimat juttamat as being a cat / like a cat as being water / like water
Ornative ORN -[a]matta /[ɐ]matː.ɐ/ mirimatta juttamatta wearing cat
/ carrying cat
wearing water
/ carrying water
Instrumental INSTR -[e]ška /[ɛ]ʃkɐ/ miriška juttaeška by the use of cat
/ with cat
by the use of water
/ with water
Prolative PROL -[e]ško /[ɛ]ʃkɔ/ miriško juttaeško by way of the cat by way of water

Internal Locative Cases

As the name suggests, the internal locative cases carry meanings which express locations that are indoors or otherwise somehow internal. These cases are more straight-forward and self-explanatory than the ones above. All of the locative categories in general are probably a little easier to learn. If you’re a non-technically inclined beginner, then the locative cases would probably be the easiest place to start in tackling the case system. These cases function very much like prepositions would in English, except the morpheme containing the information about the position is found at the end of the word instead of the beginning, and it becomes glommed into that word instead of standing on its own. And of course, like all of the non-core cases, these cases can all be verbed.

Case Gloss Suffix IPA Example 1 Example 2 Translation 1 Translation 2
Inessive INE -[a]val
-[a]vå
[ɐ]val
[ɐ]vaɪ̯
mirival
mirivå
juttaval
juttavå
inside the cat in the water
Hyperessive HSV -[a]valla [ɐ]valːɐ mirivalla juttavalla deep inside the cat deep underwater
Illative ILL -[o]lõt [ə]lət mirilõt juttalõt into the cat into the water
Hyperlative HLAT -[o]lõttõ [ə]lətːə mirilõttõ juttalõttõ deep into the cat deep into the water
Elative ELA -[a]lat [ɐ]lat mirilat juttalat from inside the cat out from the water
Hyper-elative HELA -[a]latta [ɐ]latːɐ mirilatta juttalatta from deep inside the cat out from deep under the water
Supraperlative SPER -[a]dal
-[a]då
[ɐ]dal
[ɐ]daɪ̯
miridal
miridå
juttadal
juttadå
throughout the cat throughout the water
Hyperperlative HPER -[a]dalla [ɐ]dalːɐ miridalla juttadalla all throughout the cat all throughout the water
Perlative PER -[e]lti [ɛ]l.ti mirilti juttalti through the cat through the water

Traversal Locative Cases

The traversal locative cases carry meanings which are conceptually forward-moving or “attractive”. Like the oblique cases, they are more “active” than other cases, but unlike the oblique cases, they are inherently locative.

Case Gloss Suffix IPA Example 1 Example 2 Translation 1 Translation 2
Lative LAT -[õ]võl
-[ø]vø
[ə]vəl
[ə]vəɪ̯
mirivõl
mirivø
juttavõl
juttavø
towards the cat towards the water
Superlative SUPLT -[õ]võllõ [ə]vəlːə mirivõllõ juttavõllõ onto the cat onto the water
Prosecutive PROS -[õ]võt [ə]vət mirivõt juttavõt along the cat along the water
Terminative TERM -[õ]võttõ [ə]vətːə mirivõttõ juttavõttõ until the cat (is reached) until the water (is reached)

Exodal Locative Cases

The exodal locative cases are a sister-set that pairs with the traversal locative cases. However, unlike the traversal cases, the exodal cases carry meanings which are conceptually backwards-moving or “repellent”.

Case Gloss Suffix IPA Example 1 Example 2 Translation 1 Translation 2
Ablative ABL -[a]pal
-[a]på
[ɐ]pal
[ɐ]paɪ̯
miripal
miripå
juttapal
juttapå
away from the cat away from the water
Antessive ANTE -[a]palla [ɐ]palːɐ miripalla juttapalla far from the cat far from the water
Delative DEL -[õ]põl [ə]pəl miripõl juttapõl off/downfrom the cat off of the water
Eblative EBLAT -[õ]põllõ [ə]pəlːə miripõllõ juttapõllõ (sourced) from the cat (sourced) from the water

Relational Locative Cases

The relational locative cases carry meanings which express a physical location relative to two things, typically the subject’s location relative to the object.

Case Gloss Suffix IPA Example 1 Example 2 Translation 1 Translation 2
Superessive SUPE -[a]šal
-[a]šå
[ɐ]ʃal
[ɐ]ʃaɪ̯
mirišal
mirišå
juttašal
juttašå
on (top of) the cat on (the surface of) the water
Supraessive SUPAE -[a]šalla [ɐ]ʃalːɐ mirišalla juttašalla above/over the cat above/over the water
Comitative COM -jal jal mirijal juttåal (together) with the cat (together) with the water
Pertingent PRT -ja[e]lla ja[ɛ]lːɐ mirijalla juttåalla touching/adjacent to the cat touching the water
Apudessive APDE -[a]gal
-[a]gå
[ɐ]gal
[ɐ]gaɪ̯
mirigal
mirigå
juttagal
juttagå
next to/beside the cat next to/beside the water
Enclosive ENCL -[a]galla [ɐ]galːɐ mirigalla juttagalla on either side of the cat on either side of the water
Forbative FBAT -[o]šol [ɔ]ʃɔl
[ɔ]ʃɔɪ̯
mirišol juttašol in front of the cat in front of the water
Locative LOC -[o]šollo [ɔ]ʃɔlː.ɔ mirišollo juttašollo nearby/not far from the cat nearby/not far from the water
Bative BAT -[o]jol
-[o]jø
[ɔ]jɔl
[ɔ]jɔɪ̯
mirijol
mirijø
juttajol
juttajø
behind the cat behind the water
Transversive TRANS -[o]jollo [ɔ]jɔlːɔ mirijollo juttajollo beyond the cat beyond the water
Circumfrentive CIR -[o]gol
-[o]gø
[ɔ]gɔl
[ɔ]gɔɪ̯
mirigol
mirigø
juttagol
juttagø
surrounded by cat(s) encircled by water
Situative SIT -[o]gollo [ɔ]gɔlː.ɔ mirigollo juttagollo wrapped in cat (skins) engulfed in water
Abessive ABE -[e]lki [ɛ]l.ki mirilki juttalki
juttaelki
without (the) cat(s) without water
Intrative INTR -[e]rki [ɛ]ɾ.ki mirirki juttarki
juttaerki
between the cats between the waters
Subessive SUBE -[e]nki [ɛ]ŋ.ki mirinki juttanki
juttaenki
under the cat under the water

Temporal Cases

The temporal cases carry meanings which pertain specifically to points in time or the passage of time.

Case Gloss Suffix IPA Example 1 Example 2 Translation 1 Translation 2
Temporal TEMP -{õ{i}}ra {ə{ɪ̯}.}ɾɐ miriõra juttåõra at the time of the cat at the time of the water
Tempora-Lative TMPL -[õ]hõt [ə.]hət miriõhõt juttahõt since the time of the cat since the time of the water
Tempora-
Terminative
TMPT -[õ]hõttõ [ə.]hətː.ə miriõhõttõ juttahõttõ up until the time of the cat up until the time of the water
Page Published on Tuesday, February 14, 2017.
Page Last Updated on Thursday, March 28, 2017.

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