-[a]hal / -[a]hå
The malefactive case in Duojjin is used primarily to indicate the entity against which something is opposed, and could sometimes be translated best into English as against or opposed to, but it often doesn’t have any direct English translation. It indicates a thing which is opposed, a thing against which opposition is intended to hinder or fight. It can also mean to, in the sense of a recipient of an action, but it carries with it an intrinsically harmful connotation.
To try to sum it all up into one thing: it denotes the recipient of malice.
It never means against in the sense of against the wall. That would take the pertingent case. It only means against in the sense of your team against mine.
against/opposed to your mother
against/opposed to me
S/he [slapped] [me].
(Lit: Meagainst s/he‘handundered)
The [soldier] [looked] at him/her [threateningly].
The [soldier] [[glared]] at him/her.
S/he‘s been talking against you.
S/he‘s been talking shit about you.
(Lit: Youagainst s/he‘speecheding)
Verbal Derivation Implication
When the malefactive case is derived into an active verb, it implies a verb of giving or doing to in such a fashion that will result somehow in harm or general badness to the recipient, which is the stem deriving that verb.
You [gave me] a [disease]!
I [gave] his face the underside of my hand (in a hostile way).
I [[[slapped]]] him/her.
When a malefactive noun is derived into a stative verb, it is copulaic/existential, essentially meaning is opposed to or is against.
The cat is [opposed] to the dog.