Malefactive Case (MAL)

-[a]hal / -[a]hå

The malefactive case in Duojjin is used primarily to indicate the entity against which something is opposed, and could sometimes be translated best into English as against or opposed to, but it often doesn’t have any direct English translation. It indicates a thing which is opposed, a thing against which opposition is intended to hinder or fight. It can also mean to, in the sense of a recipient of an action, but it carries with it an intrinsically harmful connotation.

To try to sum it all up into one thing: it denotes the recipient of malice.

It never means against in the sense of against the wall. That would take the pertingent case. It only means against in the sense of your team against mine.

mäccytihäl
mäccyitihal
motherGEN2MAL
against/opposed to your mother
mäccytihäl

sahal
seiahal
1MAL
against/opposed to me
sahal

Sahal heikädonkinen.
seiahal heikädoenkiinen
1MAL 3NOMhandSUBEdo.PAST.PLAIN
S/he [slapped] [me].
(Lit: Meagainst s/hehandundered)
Sahal hei’kädonkinen.

Gahal kiististajasvennen.
heiahal kiististajasveninen
him/herMAL warAGNNOMvisiondo.PAST.PLAIN
The [soldier] [looked] at him/her [threateningly].
The [soldier] [[glared]] at him/her.
Gahal kiististaja’svennen.

Tahal heipuhunenihin.
teiahal heipuhuinenihin
2MAL 3NOMspeechdo.PAST.PLAINdo.PRES.PLAIN
S/he‘s been talking against you.
S/he‘s been talking shit about you.
(Lit: Youagainst s/hespeecheding)
Tahal hei’puhunenihin.

Verbal Derivation Implication

When the malefactive case is derived into an active verb, it implies a verb of giving or doing to in such a fashion that will result somehow in harm or general badness to the recipient, which is the stem deriving that verb.

Opäntõn teisahalnen!
opäntõn teiseiahalinen
bigillnessACC 2NOM1MALdo.PAST.PLAIN
You [gave me] a [disease]!
Opäntõn tei’sahalnen!

Kädonkisi seivåppigihalnen.
kädoenkiisi seiheiahalinen
handSUBEGEN1 1NOM3MALdo.PAST.PLAIN
I [gave] his face the underside of my hand (in a hostile way).
I [[[slapped]]] him/her.
Kädonkisi sei’våppigihalnen.

When a malefactive noun is derived into a stative verb, it is copulaic/existential, essentially meaning is opposed to or is against.

Mirihänåhälmin.
mirihänåhälimin
catNOMdogMALis.PRES.PLAIN
The cat is [opposed] to the dog.
Miri’hänåhälmin.

Page Published March 28, 2017
Past Last Updated on June 12, 2017
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