Malefactive Case (MAL)

Noun Case > Non-Core Grammatical > Malefactive Case (MAL)

-[õ]jõttõ


The malefactive case in Duojjin is used primarily to indicate the entity against which something is opposed, and could sometimes be translated best into English as against or opposed to, but it often doesn’t have any direct English translation. It indicates a thing which is opposed, a thing against which opposition is intended to hinder or fight. It can also mean to, in the sense of a recipient of an action, but it carries with it an intrinsically harmful connotation.

To try to sum it all up into one thing: it denotes the recipient of malice.

It never means against in the sense of against the wall. That would take the pertingent case. It only means against in the sense of your team against mine.

The malefactive case ending is -õjõttõ.

mäccytijõttõ
mäccyitiõjõttõ
motherGEN2MAL
against/opposed to your mother
mäccytijõttõ

sõjõttõ
seiõjõttõ
1MAL
against/opposed to me
sõjõttõ

Sõjõttõ heikädonkijen.
seiõjõttõ heikädoenkiijen
1MAL 3NOMhandSUBEdo.PAST.PLAIN
S/he [slapped] [me].
(Lit: Meagainst s/hehandundered)
Sõjõttõ hei’kädonkijen.

Hõjõttõ kiististajagatsåen.
heiõjõttõ kiististajaeyeijen
him/herMAL warAGNNOMeyedo.PAST.PLAIN
The [soldier] [looked] at him/her [threateningly].
The [soldier] [[glared]] at him/her.
(Lit: Him/herinopposition warereyed)
Hõjõttõ kiististaja’gatsåen.

Tõjõttõ heipurujenihin.
teiõjõttõ heipuhuijenihin
2MAL 3NOMspeechdo.PAST.PLAINdo.PRES.PLAIN
S/he‘s been talking against you.
S/he‘s been talking shit about you.
(Lit: Youagainst s/hespeecheding)
Tõjõttõ hei’purujenihin.

Verbal Derivation Implication


When the malefactive case is derived into an active verb, it implies a verb of giving or doing to in such a fashion that will result somehow in harm or general badness to the recipient, which is the stem deriving that verb.

Opäntõn teisõjõttõjen!
opäntõn teiseiõjõttõijen
bigillnessACC 2NOM1MALdo.PAST.PLAIN
You [gave me] a [disease]!
Opäntõn tei’sõjõttõjen!

Kädonkisi seivåppigijõttõjen.
kädoenkiisi seiheijõttõijen
handSUBEGEN1 1NOM3MALdo.PAST.PLAIN
I [gave] his face the underside of my hand (in a hostile way).
I [[[slapped]]] him/her.
Kädonkisi sei’våppigijõttõjen.

When a malefactive noun is derived into a stative verb, it is copulaic/existential, essentially meaning is opposed to or is against.

Mirihänåjõttõmin.
mirihänåjõttõimin
catNOMdogMALis.PRES.PLAIN
The cat is [opposed to] the dog.
Miri’hänåjõttõmin.

Page Published March 28, 2017
Past Last Updated on January 21, 2018
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