Hyperessive Case (HSV)

Noun Case > Locative Internal > Hyperessive Case (HSV)

-[a]valla


The hyperessive is the exaggerated counterpart of the inessive case. It denotes an area deep within the root. It can typically be translated into English as deep inside of or deep in. It can only be used to refer to physical locations inside of things.

When referring to things which are deep inside of other things, you don’t necessarily always need to use the hyperessive. If the fact that it’s not just inside, but deep inside is not important, then the hyperessive needn’t necessarily be used.

The hyperessive case ending is -avalla.

vuohovalla
vuohoavalla
caveHSV
deep inside the cave
(Lit: cavedeepin)
vuohovalla

kirivalla
kiriavalla
treeHSV
deep inside the tree
(Lit: treedeepin)
kirivalla

sjeivavalla
sjeivaavalla
skyHSV
deep into the sky
(Lit: skydeepin)
sjeivavalla

Verbal Derivation Implication


When a hyperessive noun is derived into an action verb, it implies a verb of motion that both begins and ends deep inside of the root of the verb. This can be conceptually translated into English as move deep inside of. The manner of movement is either left unmentioned or clarified with adverbs or additional clauses.

Nøtassakikirivallahen.
nøtaessavuohoavallaihen
animalPLNOMcaveHSVdo.PAST.CONT
The animals [were still moving] deep inside of the forest.
(Lit: Animalsforestdeepinsideed)
Nøtassa’kikirivallahen.

Jurijuttavallahin.
jurijuttaavallaihin
fishNOMwaterHSVdo.PRES.PLN
The fish is/are [swimming around] deep under the water.
(Lit: Fishwaterdeepinsiding)
Juri’juttavallahin.

And as usual, when a hyperessive noun is derived into a stative verb, it is copulaic/existential.

Halavuohovallamin.
hala‘–vuohoavallaimin
creatureNOMcaveHSVis.PRES.PLAIN
The creature is deep within the cave.
(Lit: Creaturecavedeepinis.)
Hala’vuohovallamin.

Page Published March 27, 2017
Page Last Updated on January 22, 2018
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