Dative Case (DAT)

-[õ]hõl / -[õ]hø

The dative case in Duojjin is used primarily to indicate the entity to which something is given or the entity for which something is intended, and would be translated best into English as for and some uses of to. Though, unlike to, it can never mean movement towards. That would require the lative case.

mirihõl
miriõhõl
catDAT
for the cat
mirihõl

tõhõl
teiõhõl
2DAT
for you
tõhõl

Kivan kørajiirahõlnen.
kivan kørajiiraõhõlinen
bookACC manNOMwomanDATdo.PAST.PLAIN
The man
 [gave] a book to the woman.
(Lit: Book manwomanforred.)
Kivan køra’jiirahõlnen.

It can also be used to indicate the noun which benefits from an action. The technically minded will recognize this use as a benefactive.

n seitälävõlnen miriõhõl.
n seitäläõvõlinen miriõhõl
foodACC 1NOMhereLATdo.PAST.PLAIN catDAT
I [[brought]] food for the cat.
(Lit: Food Iheretoed catfor.)
Pån sei’tälävõlnen miriõhõl.

The dative is also regularly used to express goals or intentions.

(Example of intention)
Miri
heiõhõlmin.
miriheiõhõlimin
catNOMhim/herDATis.PRES.PLAIN
The cat is for him/her.
Miri’heiõhõlmin.

(Example of goal)
Lamalyõtõhõl miritäläpälnen.
lamalyõtõõhõl miritäläapalinen
milkdiscoveryDAT catNOMhereABLdo.PAST.PLAIN
The cat [[left]] to find milk.
(Lit: Milkdiscoveryfor cathereawayed; or The cat hereawayed for a milkdiscovery)
Lamalyõtõhõl miri’täläpälnen.

Verbal Derivation Implication

When a noun in the dative case is derived into an action verb, it typically implies a verb that somehow relates to giving, as can be seen in the first example at the top of this page (verbal derivation suffixes in the examples are glossed in maroon/brown). The noun root marked by this case is recognized as the recipient/patient/indirect object of the act. The core meaning underpinning most dative action verbs in Duojjin is “providing a good thing for X thing.”

Stative verbs that have been derived from dative nouns, like most stative-derived verbs, are copulaic.

Examples:

miri; køra; jiira; jei; huo
=cat; man; woman; someone; house
(^root nouns)

miriõhõl; kørahõl; jiirahõl; jeiõhõl; huol
=for the cat; for the man; for the woman; for someone; for the house
(^stem nouns)

miriõhõlihin; kørahõlihin; jiirahõlihin; jeiõhõlihin; huohõlihin
=[give] to the cat; [give] to the man; [give] to the woman; [give] to someone; [give] to the house
(^derived present tense action verbs)

miriõhõlnen; kørahõlnen; jiirahõlnen; jeiõhõlnen; huohõlnen
=[gave] to the cat; [gave] to the man; [gave] to the woman; [gave] to someone; [gave] to the house
(^derived past tense action verbs)

miriõhõljar; kørahõljar; jiirahõljar; jeiõhõljar; huohõljar
=will [give] to the cat; will [give] to the man; will [give] to the woman; will [give] to someone; will [give] to the house
(^derived future tense action verbs)

miriõhõlmin; kørahõlmin; jiirahõlmin; jeiõhõlmin; huohõlmin
=is for the cat; is for the man; is for the woman; is for someone; is for the house
(^derived present tense stative verbs)

miriõhõlmen; kørahõlmen; jiirahõlmen; jeiõhõlmen; huohõlmen
=was for the cat; was for the man; was for the woman; was for someone; was for the house
(^derived past tense stative verbs)

miriõhõlmar; kørahõlmar; jiirahõlmar; jeiõhõlmar; huohõlmar
=will be for the cat; will be for the man; will be for the woman; will be for someone; will be for the house
(^derived future tense stative verbs)

Page published on March 15, 2017
Page last updated on March 28, 2017