Noun Case > Core > Dative Case (DAT)
-[õ]gõl / -[õ]gø
The dative case in Duojjin is used primarily to indicate the entity to which something is given or the entity for which something is intended, and would be translated best into English as for and some uses of to. Though, unlike to, it can never mean movement towards. That would require the lative case.
The dative case ending is -õgõl.
for the cat
[The man] [gave] a book to [the woman].
(Lit: Book man‘womanforred.)
It can also be used to indicate the noun which benefits from an action. The technically minded will recognize this use as a benefactive.
Pån sei‘tälävõlnen miriõgõl.
på–n sei–‘–tälä–õvõl–inen miri–õgõl
food–ACC 1–NOM–here–LAT–do.PAST.PLAIN cat–DAT
[I] [[brought]] [food] for the cat.
(Lit: Food I‘heretoed catfor.)
Pån sei’tälävõlnen miriõgõl.
The dative is also regularly used to express goals or intentions.
(Example of intention)
[The cat] is for him/her.
(Example of goal)
[The cat] [[left]] to find milk.
(Lit: Milkdiscoveryfor cat‘hereawayed; or The cat hereawayed for a milkdiscovery)
Verbal Derivation Implication
When a noun in the dative case is derived into an action verb, it typically implies a verb that somehow relates to giving, as can be seen in the first example at the top of this page (verbal derivation suffixes in the examples are glossed in maroon/brown). The noun root marked by this case is recognized as the recipient/patient/indirect object of the act. The core meaning underpinning most dative action verbs in Duojjin is “providing a good thing for X thing.”
Stative verbs that have been derived from dative nouns, like most stative-derived verbs, are copulaic.
miri; køra; jiira; jei; huo
=cat; man; woman; someone; house
mirigõl; køragõl; jiiragõl; jõgõl; huogõl
=for the cat; for the man; for the woman; for someone; for the house
mirigõlihin; køragõlihin; jiiragõlihin; jõgõlihin; huogõlihin
=[give] to the cat; [give] to the man; [give] to the woman; [give] to someone; [give] to the house
(^derived present tense action verbs)
mirigõlnen; køragõlnen; jiiragõlnen; jõgõlnen; huogõlnen
=[gave] to the cat; [gave] to the man; [gave] to the woman; [gave] to someone; [gave] to the house
(^derived past tense action verbs)
mirigõljar; køragõljar; jiiragõljar; jõgõljar; huogõljar
=will [give] to the cat; will [give] to the man; will [give] to the woman; will [give] to someone; will [give] to the house
(^derived future tense action verbs)
mirigõlmin; køragõlmin; jiiragõlmin; jõgõlmin; huogõlmin
=is for the cat; is for the man; is for the woman; is for someone; is for the house
(^derived present tense stative verbs)
mirigõlmen; køragõlmen; jiiragõlmen; jõgõlmen; huogõlmen
=was for the cat; was for the man; was for the woman; was for someone; was for the house
(^derived past tense stative verbs)
mirigõlmjar; køragõlmjar; jiiragõlmjar; jõgõlmjar; huogõlmjar
=will be for the cat; will be for the man; will be for the woman; will be for someone; will be for the house
(^derived future tense stative verbs)
Application on Verbs
Like some other noun cases, the dative case can be applied to the end of a verb construction to derive a syntactic noun which itself acts as the object of another verb. When the dative case is used in this way, it acts as a clitic that affects the entire clause containing the verb to which it is applied.
Verbs of necessity (wanting or needing) require the dative case for their object when that object is itself an act or event. When a thing is necessitated (instead of an act), then the object would take the accusative case instead. Goals and intentions, as mentioned above, also require the dative case for their objects. Depending on the context, this use of the dative case can be conceptualized in English as either for, to, in order to, so that, or so that SUBJECT can.
When a verb construction has been derived into a syntactic noun in this way, its subject may be omitted, but it may also be left in.
In the following examples, the entire subordinate clause being marked/affected by the dative case is shown in italic font.
[I] am waiting to [speak].
(Lit: Wordingfor I‘waiting.)
[[I]] want to [eat] so that [I] can start playing.
(Lit: I‘gamestartfor I‘foodingwantto.)
Jatustajan gatsahingõl sei‘huovatiminju.
Jatustajan gatsangõl sei‘huovaumju.
jatu–staja–n gatsa–ihin–õgõl sei–‘–huo–avat–imin–ju
image–AGN–ACC eye–do.PRES.PLN–DAT 1–NOM–house–LOC–is.PRES.PLN
[I] want to be at home so that I can [watch] [[TV]].
(Lit: [Imager] eyeingfor I‘homeatbewantto.)
Jatustajan gatsahingõl sei’huovatiminju.
Jatustajan gatsangõl sei’huovaumju.
Kelvuoråan jei‘gatsahingõl ii‘metkåahinjute.
Kelvuoråan jei‘gatsangõl ii‘metkåanjut.
kel–vuoråa–n jei–‘–gatsa–ihin–õgõl, ii–‘–metkåa–ihin–ju–te
entire–mountain–ACC 4–NOM–eye–do.PRES.PLN–DAT PROSUB–NOM–journey–do.PRES.PLN–OPT–CAUS
In order for [one] to see [the entire mountain], [[they]] are caused to want to [travel].
In order for [one] to see [the entire mountain], [[they]] [must] [travel].
(Lit: [Wholemountain] one‘eyeingfor, [one]‘journeydowanttocausedto.)
Kelvuoråan jei’gatsahingõl ii’metkåahinjute.
Kelvuoråan jei’gatsangõl ii’metkåahinjut.