Comprehensive Case (CMP)

Noun Case > Locative Internal > Comprehensive Case (CMP)

-[a]dal


As opposed to the inessive case, which expresses a location within a place, the comprehensive case expresses a permutation throughout a place. It can typically be conceptualized in English as throughout or among. 

The comprehensive case ending is -adal.

huodal
huoadal
houseCMP
throughout the house
(Lit: housethroughout)
huodal

sjeivadal
sjeivaadal
skyCMP
throughout the sky
(Lit: skythroughout)
sjeivadal

kylidal
kyliadal
bodyCMP
throughout the body
(Lit: bodythroughout)
kylidal

kivadal
kivaadal
bookCMP
throughout the book
(Lit: bookthroughout)
kivadal

kivassadal
kivaessaadal
bookPLCMP
among the books
(Lit: booksthroughout)
kivassadal

Verbal Derivation Implication


When a comprehensive noun is derived into an action verb, it implies a verb of motion throughout the root. The manner of movement is either left to context or elaborated with additional words or clauses.

Hänåhuodälnen.
hänåhuoadalinen
dogNOMhouseCMPdo.PST.PLN
The dog [ran] throughout the house.
The dog [ran] all over the house.
(Lit: Doghousethroughouted)
Hänå’huodalnen.

Jahosjeivadalihin.
jahosjeivaadalihin
cloudNOMskyCMPdo.PRS.PLN
The cloud [is moving [spreading]] throughout the sky.
(Lit: Cloudskythroughouting)
Jaho’sjeivadalihin.

Damjakylidalõhõn.
damjakyliadalõhõn
bloodNOMbodyCMPdo.PRS.GNM
Blood [courses] throughout the body.
(Lit: Bloodbodythroughouts)
Damja’kylidalõhõn.

Tůtopurukivadalõhõn.
tůtopurukivaadalõhõn
cattlewordNOMbookCMPdo.PRS.GNM
The word ‘cattle’ [permeates] the book.
(Lit: cattlewordbookthroughouts)
Tůtopuru’kivadalõhõn.

When a comprehensive noun is derived into a stative verb, it is copulaic, and essentially means is spread/strewn/scattered throughout. When said of singular subjects, it suggests that the subject is broken or fragmented, and that its pieces are strewn. When said of plural subjects, it suggests that the individual units of the plural are strewn. Remember that plurality is often left to context, and is generally only explicitly included when doing otherwise would be too ambiguous. What constitutes “too ambiguous” is at the speaker’s discretion.

Hänåhuodälmen.
hänåhuoadalmen
dogNOMhouseCMPis.PST.PLN
The [dismembered] dog was [strewn] throughout the house.
(Lit: Doghousethroughoutwas)
Hänå’huodälmen.

Jahosjeivadalmin.
jahosjeivaadalimin
cloudNOMskyCMPis.PRS.PLN
The cloud is [scattered] throughout the sky.
(Lit: Cloudskythroughoutis)
Jaho’sjeivadalihin.

Damjakylidalmõn.
damjakyliadalõmõn
bloodNOMbodyCMPis.PRS.GNM
Blood is [strewn] throughout the bodies.
(Lit: Bloodbodythroughoutis)
Damja’kylidalmõn.

Tůtopurukivadalmin.
tůtopurukivaadalimin
cattlewordNOMbookCMPis.PRS.PLN
The word ‘cattle’ is [strewn] throughout the book.
(Lit: cattlewordbookthroughoutis)
Tůtopuru’kivadalmin.

Šuoriccõšašalodalmõn.
šuorieccõšašaloadalõmõn
tombstoneGPLNOMgraveyardCMPis.PRS.GNM
Many tombstones are [scattered] throughout the graveyard.
(Lit: tombstonemanygraveyardthroughoutis)
Šuoriccõ’šašalodalmõn.

Šuorišašalodalmin.
šuorišašaloadalimin
tombstoneNOMgraveyardCMPis.PRS.PLN
The tombstone is [scattered] throughout the graveyard.
(Lit: tombstonegraveyardthroughoutis)
Šuorivi’šašalodalmin.

Page Published on June 21, 2017
Page Last Edited on January 22, 2018
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