Comprehensive Case (CMP)

-[a]dal

As opposed to the inessive case, which expresses a location within a place, the comprehensive case expresses a permutation throughout a place. It can typically be conceptualized in English as throughout or among. 

huodal
huoadal
houseCMP
throughout the house
(Lit: housethroughout)
huodal

sjeivadal
sjeivaadal
skyCMP
throughout the sky
(Lit: skythroughout)
sjeivadal

kylidäl
kyliadal
bodyCMP
throughout the body
(Lit: bodythroughout)
kylidal

kivadal
kivaadal
bookCMP
throughout the book
(Lit: bookthroughout)
kivadal

kivassadal
kivaessaadal
bookPLCMP
among the books
(Lit: booksthroughout)
kivassadal

Verbal Derivation Implication

When a comprehensive noun is derived into an action verb, it implies a verb of motion throughout the root. The manner of movement is either left to context or elaborated with additional words or clauses.

Hänåhuodälnen.
hänåhuoadalinen
dogNOMhouseCMPdo.PST.PLN
The dog [ran] throughout the house.
The dog [ran] all over the house.
(Lit: Doghousethroughouted)
Hänå’huodalnen.

Jahosjeivadalihin.
jahosjeivaadalihin
cloudNOMskyCMPdo.PRS.PLN
The cloud [is moving (spreading)] throughout the sky.
(Lit: Cloudskythroughouting)
Jaho’sjeivadalihin.

Damjakylidälõhõn.
damjakyliadalõhõn
bloodNOMbodyCMPdo.PRS.GNM
Blood [courses] throughout the body.
(Lit: Bloodbodythroughouts)
Damja’kylidalõhõn.

Tůtopi vjeistakivadalõhõn.
tůtopi vjeistakivaadalõhõn
cattleGEN wordNOMbookCMPdo.PRS.GNM
As for cattle, the word [moves] throughout the book.
The word cattle [permeates] the book.
(Lit: cattleof wordbookthroughouts)
Tůtopi vjeista’kivadalõhõn.

When a comprehensive noun is derived into a stative verb, it is copulaic, and essentially means is spread/strewn/scattered throughout. When said of singular subjects, it suggests that the subject is broken or fragmented, and that its pieces are strewn. When said of plural subjects, it suggests that the individual units of the plural are strewn. Remember that plurality is often left to context, and is generally only explicitly included when doing otherwise would be too ambiguous. What constitutes “too ambiguous” is at the speaker’s discretion.

Hänåhuodälmen.
hänåhuoadalmen
dogNOMhouseCMPis.PST.PLN
The [dismembered] dog was [strewn] throughout the house.
(Lit: Doghousethroughoutwas)
Hänå’huodalmen.

Jahosjeivadalmin.
jahosjeivaadalimin
cloudNOMskyCMPis.PRS.PLN
The cloud is [scattered] throughout the sky.
(Lit: Cloudskythroughoutis)
Jaho’sjeivadalihin.

Damjakylidälmõn.
damjakyliadalõmõn
bloodNOMbodyCMPis.PRS.GNM
Blood is [strewn] throughout the bodies.
(Lit: Bloodbodythroughoutis)
Damja’kylidälmõn.

Tůtopi vjeistakivadalmin.
tůtopi vjeistakivaadalimin
cattleGEN wordNOMbookCMPis.PRS.PLN
As for cattle, the word is [strewn] throughout the book.
The word cattle is [strewn] throughout the book.
(Lit: cattleof wordbookthroughoutis)
Tůtopi vjeista’kivadalmin.

Šuoriccõšešenlõdalmõn.
šuorieccõšešenlõadalõmõn
tombstoneGPLNOMgraveyardCMPis.PRS.GNM
Many tombstones are [scattered] throughout the graveyard.
(Lit: tombstonemanygraveyardthroughoutis)
Šuoriccõ’šešenlõdalmõn.

Šuorišešenlõdalmin.
šuorišešenlõadalimin
tombstoneNOMgraveyardCMPis.PRS.PLN
The [broken] tombstone is [scattered] throughout the graveyard.
(Lit: tombstonegraveyardthroughoutis)
Šuori’šešenlõdalmin.

Page Published on June 21, 2017
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