Adverbial Case (ADV)

Noun Case > Non-Core Grammatical > Adverbial Case (ADV)

-[a]jat


The adverbial case turns a noun into an adverb. That is to say, it makes the noun root to which it’s attached describe the manner of the verb of the clause in which it is found; it describes the way a verb is done. It usually can be translated into English as the suffix -ly or the word like when it is drawing a comparison. Just like pure adverb roots, they typically come after the verb, but are flexible, and can be moved just about anywhere.

The adverbial case ending is -ajat.

Teipuruõjõn håat.
teipuhuõhõn heijat
2NOMspeechdo.PRES.GNOM 3ADV
You [speak] like him/her.
(Lit: You[speak] himly/herly.)
Tei’puhuõhõn håat.

Mirišälnen turujat.
miriäšälinen turujat
catNOMshelfSUPEdo.PAST.PLAIN attemptADV
The cat tried [to jump] onto the shelf.
(Lit: Catshelfontoed attemptedly.)
Miri’cäšälnen turujat.

Hänåsäpälnen ohojat.
hänåseiapalinen ohojat
dogNOM1ABLdo.PAST.PLAIN bigspeedADV
The dog [[ran]] away from me [quickly].
(Lit: Dogmeawayed bigspeedily)
Hänå’säpälnen ohojat.

Verbal Derivation Implication


Verbed adverbials are a bit of a unique case as compared to other verbed cases. They create a predicative construction which describes an existential quality of the subject. It functions as a copula that describes attribution. They function very much like predicative adjectives in English or German (ie: The house is red (the noun is adjective)), except they’re predicative adverbs instead (ie: The house is redly (the noun verbs adverbially)). Predicative adverbs cause the verbal derivational affix (the maroon/brown slots) to be dropped in the present tense, as the verbal element is understood contextually to be of an existential/stative nature. In laymen’s terms, when an adverbial is used as a verb, it typically means is ROOT-like.

Mirisinsijat.
mirisinsijat
catNOMbluenessADV
The cat [is blue].
(Lit: Catbluely)
(Imp: Cat [exists] bluely)
Miri’sinsijat.

Deihjeivåat.
deihjeivajat
3.INNOMgoodnessADV
It [is good].
(Lit: Itgoodly)
(Imp: It [exists] goodly)
Dei’hjeivåat.

Hänåohojat.
hänåohojat
dogNOMbigspeedADV
The dog [is [fast]].
(Lit: Dogbigspeedily)
(Imp: Dog [exists] bigspeedily)
Hänå’ohojat.

Seissalodojat.
seiessalodojat
1PL––NOMsiblingADV
We [are] siblings.
(Lit: Wesiblingly)
(Imp: We [exist] siblingly)
Seissa’lodojat.

When the adverbial case is used in this way, as a syntactic verb, it can be negated by echoing the nucleus of the case ending, just as though it were a verb ending.

Mirisinsijata.
mirisinsijata
catNOMbluenessADVNEG
The cat [is not blue].
(Lit: Catbluelynot)
(Imp: Cat [exists] not bluely)
Miri’sinsijata.

Deihjeivåata.
deihjeivajata
3.INNOMgoodnessADVNEG
It [is not good].
(Lit: Itgoodlynot)
(Imp: It [exists] not goodly)
Dei’hjeivåata.

Hänåohojata.
hänåohojata
dogNOMbigspeedADVNEG
The dog [is not [fast]].
(Lit: Dogbigspeedilynot)
(Imp: Dog [exists] not bigspeedily)
Hänå’ohojata.

Page Published March 21, 2017
Page Last Updated January 22, 2018
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