New Page: Inessive Case

I have published a page for the Inessive Case. As per the other cases, it can be accessed from the Noun Case menu at the top of the screen, or from the tables on the Noun Case page.

Also, I’ve gone back and changed the colour of the light blue slots in my glossed translations to teal, because it’s just much easier on the eyes. The slot in question is representative of a root noun that has been derived into a verb. I plan to put up a page eventually which will explain the colour scheme in my glosses. Light blue has now been reassigned to what was the grey slot (noun case on direct objects that are not incorporated into a verb), which is now light blue instead.

Over 100 hits! :O

Wow. 114 hits. I gotta’ admit, I really didn’t expect the site to ever break 100 hits, let alone so early in its life. It still only has a few pages so far. I am surprised and impressed. lol. ❤

Sein tõssõoširiminker.
sein teiõssõoširiiminker
1ACC 2COMPLNOMbigreflectionis.PRES.PLAINCAUS
You all cause [me] to be a big reflection.
(Lit: me youallbigreflectioniscausedto.)
(Imp: Thank you all very much; you honour me.)

Section Added for Dative Case

I’ve added a new dedicated page for the dative case. Dedicated pages for all of the cases are to come in the future, eventually. 🙂 You can reach it as a sub-menu nested under Noun Case at the top of the screen. Alternatively, if you click on that same Noun Case button which will take you to the main Noun Case page which contains all the case tables, the dative case’s entry in its respective table is now also a link which can be clicked on to reach the page dedicated to that case. This will also be true eventually of all the other cases on all the tables on that page.

Some Thoughts on Cases VS Adpositions

Cases do not strictly have to cause declension or agreement in other parts of the sentence. Though that is extremely common, of course. They are not prepositions because they are not free morphs. They must attach to the word they modify, whereas prepositions might be able to move around the sentence. They are a completely different POS (part of speech), despite the fact that they do serve very similar purposes. They go about those purposes in different ways; they behave differently.

Because of the fact that they are bound morphs, that means that they are subject to assimilation at morpheme boundaries. That means that to the untrained eye, the case might seem to disappear entirely. Example: puällä+jat = puällåät (argument+ADVERBIAL = argumentatively). They can also cause the root to which they attach to change as well. Example: tei+hõl = tõhõl (you+DATIVE = for you). Prepositions will never do either of these things because…

If I’m not mistaken, prepositions are particles (or at the very least, they’re very particle-like) which essentially means that they cannot be inflected (again untrue of Duojjin’s cases, which themselves can become cased, and further derived into verbs). It means other stuff too, but that’s a major enough point to discredit the idea that they’re really postpositions (which, of course, play by the same rules as other adpositions).

Furthermore, languages that use case will generally require that more or less every noun must be marked for case in some way or another. You will never find (ANADEW me if I’m wrong, please) a language that demands that every noun be obligatorily paired with an adposition. That would be silly.

And the main reason for that silliness would be because case generally covers more purposes than adpositions, which means that case is going to be needed in more places than prepositions. The most obvious being the core cases like nominative, accusative, and dative. You’ll never find a preposition that marks for these things because there is no “position” here. Well, you will for dative, I guess. 😛 Is the argument denoted by the dative case even a core argument? Whatever. That’s not important now.

Because of all this, there’s a pretty good test to determine whether a case is a case. After you’ve applied it to a word… is it still in need of a case before it can be a legal word? If the answer is “yes”, then it’s not a case; it’s some other kind of morphological thing. Perhaps even a postposition! :O But if the answer is “no”, then you’ve obviously met the obligation of having at least one case applied to the word, indicating that it is, in fact, a case.

Another (perhaps lesser) point of interest is that prepositions tend to (as far as I’m aware) have far more different purposes per item. Like, any one preposition is likely to serve many more different functions within its language than any one case is likely to serve within its.

I recall that roughly (quite roughly) half of the world’s languages use case, and that also roughly half of the world’s languages don’t have grammatical agreement. There’s pretty much statistically bound to be overlap to be found between those two details.

I’m sure there are more differences that one could come up with between case and adpositions, but I think that these will do for now. 😛